Manuals and Guidelines

  • How to find and select literature?
  • Construct A Research Proposal
  • Formulating A Research Question
  • Find Proper Test
  • Master's thesis and doctoral dissertation guide ( رێبەرێ نڤيسينا ناما دکتۆرايێ و ماستەرێ)
How to find and select literature?

A literature review will help the student to formulate the problem that s/he is tackling, to know what research has already been carried out on your subject and what aspects are under-researched. Moreover, it will also tell you about the relevant theories, important variables etc.

A good starting place to find further relevant literature is to look at the articles and books your textbooks refer to. A better review can be done using the academic databases and search engines like EBSCOScopus and Google Scholar. Often, you will find a large amount of literature relevant to your topic. References in articles can be used to find older literature and the option ‘cited by‘ can be used as well. The advantages of using ‘cited by‘ is to find newer literature.

Make sure to keep a good record of where you get your information from. You are advised to use a programmes like EndNote which will help you to manage your references and bibliography. Most of the well-known databases and search engines allow direct and automatic importation of citations into EndNote (and similar programs).

When creating a list of references at the end (bibliography) of the paper, use one single style. At the University of Zakho, we suggest using the APA style

Register you thesis/dissertation here.

Construct A Research Proposal

A research proposal sets out what you intend to achieve and how you will go about it. The requirements of research proposals differ depending on the question you want to address. It should at least include (although not necessarily in this order):

 Abstract: The so-could “abstract” contains a brief summary of your PhD Research Proposal (no more than 330 words, on a single page). It starts by giving a brief background of the topics. This can be performed by describing in a few words the knowledge domain where your research takes place and the key issues of that domain that offer opportunities for the scientific you intend to explore. Then present briefly your research statement, your proposed research approach, the results you expect to achieve, and the anticipated implications of such results on the advancement of the knowledge domain.
The guidelines provided in this template are meant to be used creatively and not as a cookbook recipe for the production of research proposals.

 Chapter 1: Introduction

This part includes a brief introduction about the topic and how it is important. It explains the background of the project, focusing briefly on the major issues of its knowledge domain and clarifying why these issues are worthy of attention. The introduction should endeavor to catch the reader’s interest and should be written in such a way that can be understood easily by any reader with a general science background. It should cite all relevant references pertaining to the major issues described.
Many researchers prefer to postpone writing the Introduction till the rest of the document is finished. This is apparently make sense, since the act of writing tends to introduces many changes in the plans initially sketched by the writer. Therefore, at finishing from the document the writer gets a clear view of how to construct an introduction that is, indeed, compelling.

Normally, the last paragraph of this section gives hints about the problem that is going to be consider within the proposal research. In other words, the last paragraph works as a bridge that serves as preface of the next section which is research problem.

Chapter 2: State of Art

The State of the Art, also known as the Literature Review. First of all, it demonstrates that you have built a solid knowledge of the field where the research is taking place, and that you have critically identified and evaluated the key literature.
The Literature Review must give credit to the researchers who laid the groundwork for your research. In this way when your research objectives are further clarified, the reader is able to recognize beyond doubt that what you are attempting to do. This will confirm of what has not been done in the past and that your research will likely make a significant contribution to the literature.
The Literature Review is usually the more extensive part of a research proposal, so it will expectedly develop over various paragraphs and sub-paragraphs. It should be accompanied by comprehensive references. Ideally, all appropriate books, book chapters, papers and other texts produced in the knowledge domain you are exploring which are of importance for your work should be mentioned here and listed at the end of the proposal. The popular reference style conventions are American Psychological Association (APA) style.

Chapter 3: Research Problems, Objectives, Questions, And Hypotheses

Research Problems: The research problem is a general statement of why the research should be done. This is something that is not well-understood or solved and can be addressed by research. The fundamental questions could be as:

  1. Why should anyone care about the outcome of this research?
  2. Who would use the results of this research? and for what?
  3. Why should anyone sponsor this research?

Research Objectives: These are statements of what is expected as the output of the research. Each of the objectives must be at least partially met at the end of the project. The clarification of the research objectives should build solidly on the Literature Review and relate your research to the work carried out by others. It should elucidate the measure to which your work develops from their work and the extent to which it diverges from theirs to open up new and yet unexplored avenues.
There is usually a single general objective which is not operational. This is broken down into a list of specific objectives which are then formulated as research questions, which are then operationalized as research methods.

Research Questions: This section must specify what the research will actually address. Each research question must be answered by the thesis, therefore it must be a specific question to which an answer can be given. Questions follow objectives and may be simple re-statements in operational form, i.e. where an experiment or sample can answer it.

Research Hypothesis: As a definition: It is an idea or suggestion that is based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation.

In the context of research, these are the researcher’s ideas on what the research will show, before it is carried out. They are statements that can be proved, dis-proved, or (most likely) modified by the research. They are based on previous work, usually discovered in the literature review. They should match the research questions one-to-one.

Chapter 4: Research Methodology and Materials 

Research Methodology: Provides a discussion of the research strategy (general approach) to be adopted with appropriate justification including:

  • detail of the implementation of the strategy in relation to the proposed research
  • the technique(s) to be used including justifying appropriate technique(s) for the research strategy adopted.
  • possible problems that may arise in administering the technique(s) along with identifying strategies to minimize the impact of any potential problems.

Research Materials: This addresses the range of data that will be gathered from the research techniques and how this information will be used and analyzed. It also may include description of the study area, software and equipment and other needs that to be used and present in the research.

Chapter 5: Work Plan and Implications 

In general, it is not easy to create a detailed work plans for the research proposal. However, (in some cases) it is possible do build a detailed description of what the researcher plans to do (literature to explore in depth, principles or theorems to formulate and prove, experiments to carry out, sub-systems to build, systems integrations to perform, tests to accomplish). The plan should anticipate the problems likely to be found along the way and describe the approaches to be followed in solving them. It should also anticipate the conferences and journals to which the work in progress is expected to be submitted along the way, and schedule it in a Goals for Publication section of the work plan.

Whatever its nature, comprehensive or sketchy, your work plan should be able to put in perspective the implications of the successive steps of your work, reinforcing, in the mind of the reader, and that the outcomes of the project will contribute significantly to the enhancement of the field. It would be very clear for the reader if the anticipate plan of the research proposal can be shown as a time table.

 Template of the PhD Research Proposal can be downloaded from here.

Formulating A Research Question

The most difficult part of the research project is formulating a good research question. Commonly, you start with a topic (energy policy, or human rights) or with a general problem (something is wrong with political participation, human resource management, or this production process). Most important issue is that you have to be clear about the type of research question you want to answer. There are several types of questions:

  • Normative questions: They are about what is allowed or what is good. In most cases, normative questions implies philosophical (not empirical) research.
  • Conceptual questions: They are about the proper/useful/sufficient meaning of words; ‘what is freedom?’, ‘what is equality?’.
  • Empirical questions: They are about ‘truth’ and ‘observations’. There are several types of empirical questions can be found: 
    • Descriptive questions (what is …) are about describing facts, either at one point in time or over time.
    • Relational questions: Such studies involve examining the relationship between different variables. 
    • Explanatory questions (why is…) are about explaining the causes for something. 
  • Applied questions are asked simply because people want to solve a specific social, political or commercial problem. Researchers aiming to answer applied questions, by apply existing knowledge to solve a real-world problem. The types of applied questions are:
    • Predictive questions (what will happen if …). 
    • Remedy questions (what is the solution to…). 
    • Design questions (how to…).
Further Help: 
Find Proper Test
Want to Know Which Test to Use to Answer the Research Question?
With the help of a number of questions, you can already find out which test is most suitable for your research. Visit this page for the questions and try to answer them.
To make a choice for a suitable test, you can further use the two decision trees below. Look at your research question and hypothesis, then use Model 1 to measure group differences or model 2 for measuring cohesion.
  • Decision model 1 (difference between groups)
    Model 1 helps you choose a statistical test if you want to compare groups. For example, if you want to know if men score higher / lower on the dependent variable than women, you can use this model.
  • Decision model 2 (coherence)
    Model 2 helps you choose a statistical test to measure cohesion between variables. For example, if you want to measure which variables significantly affect the dependent variable, you can use this model.

سالا (2022)

 شێوەی نامێن قوتابيێن خواندنا بلند (دکتۆرا- ماستەر) 

 ئاگەهدارييا هەمی قوتابيێن خواندنا بلند (دکتۆرا-ماستەر) دکەين کو شێوەی نڤيسين و قەبارێ نڤيسينا ناڤەروکێ و ژێدەران دێ ژلايێ فەکۆلتی/کۆليژ هێتە ديار کرن ل دويڤ پسپورييا‎ن.   

چەوانييا نڤيسينا ناما ماستەرێ و دکتۆرايێ